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Orthognathic surgery and corrective surgery for dental-skeletal malocclusion

Harmony of the face depends on the correct proportions of the anatomical structures. Correct proportions, besides making the face balanced both morphologically and aesthetically, also guarantee the correct function of every single component. When some of these structures, the jaws in particular, undergo deviations in volume and/or in position, a pathology called jaw dysmorphosis occurs. The consequences can be functional, aesthetic, or morphological to various degrees. Malocclusion is a condition in which the relation between the teeth and the bony support (maxilla and mandible) are not in the correction position. Dental-skeletal malocclusion requires surgical treatment only when orthodontic treatment is insufficient. Collaboration between the maxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist is fundamental in the planning and successful outcome of the intervention. The protocol followed by the patient generally involves corrective surgery and orthodontic treatment before and after surgery. Corrective surgery (orthognathic surgery) requires 3-dimensional movements of the facial skeleton, with the objective of improving function, morphology, facial aesthetics, and occlusion.